总结托福考试写作笔记————可替换的表达&常错词

可替换的表达

综合写作的同义改写:下一次考试调换顺序写就行

  • 听力:professor speaker lecturer
  • 阅读:reading passage, writer, author, article
  • 说:claim argue state
  • 反驳:refute rebut deny challenge doubt question

    替换词:

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    Important = vital essential significant considerable(big&important) crucial critical
    regarding = concerning = with/ in regard to sth = about
    Example = case/instance/fact
    Be in charge of = takes charge of /is responsible for/manages
    Corporation = company = firm
    huge = gigantic/ tremendous/ enormous/ vast/ massive/ colossal
    Spare time = off-work time/ leisure time/ vacation

独立写作开头替换:

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Some = Quite a few/ a large proportion比率 of / the vast majority of
People = individuals/根据上下文experts scientists educationists tax payer
Claim = state/argue about something(that)/consider/reckon直接替换think/prefer go for choose
However =nevertheless/nonetheless
From my perspective = in my opinion/as far as I see /as far as I am concerned/from my point of view/As for me

独立写作结尾替换:

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All in all / To sum up / In conclusion / In a nutshell(正式用法) /On the whole, …(As a whole)

from what has//看what指什么 单or复 been discussed above,
taking into account all the factors discussed above,
considering all the factors above,
from all the analysis above,

it is (safe /natural/ reasonable) to (come to / draw / reach / arrive at) the conclusion that…+ 全文总论点同义改写

主题句

次序

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First = first of all/ most of all/ in the first place/ to begin with/ first and foremost/ to start with/ for starters不正式不要写/ first off
Second = moreover/ in addition/ furthermore/ additionally/ in the second place/ in the next place/ besides
Third = last but not least没有the!!!/at last / eventually/ lastly /finally

A有助于B⋯/A能使B⋯

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1 A allows/ permits/ enables sb to do 有助于
2 A is instrumental in doing = be beneficial to
3 A provide sb with great opportunities to do
4 by doing A, sb get to do能够做

凑字数:

常用的修饰语: 字多&好看

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1 There is no doubt that…
2 It is obvious/clear that…
3 As is known to all…
4 It goes without saying that…

解释/道理论证

A与B无关(反驳因果关系)

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1 A is nothing to do with B
2 A has little / no effect on B
3 There is no relation between A and B
4 A does not necessarily mean B

A与B有关(因果关系)

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1 A depends/ relies/ hinges on
2 A is determined/ dominated by B
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4 使动用法en

Quality——

学习成功acadamic performance/excellence

成功品质foster qualities and skills(三大能力十大品质)

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//三大能力
1 communicative/ing/tion skills = interpersonal relationship
2 organizing skills = multitasking
3 leadership/ charisma领导力魅力

//十大品质: 定义和名人名言一起记
1 (Diligence) is the mother of good luck. 勤奋和坚持的区别
2 (Persistance) is the twin sister of excellence.
3 (Optimism) is the content of small men in high places.
4 (Independence) is happiness.
5 (Self-discipline) is the bridge between goals and accomplishment.
6 (Tolerance) is the highest result of education.
7 The delicate balance between (modesty) and conceit(自负) is popularity.
8 (Innovation) distinguishes a leader and a follower.
9 Life shrinks or expands in proportion to (courage).心有多大,舞台就有多大
10 Talent wins games; but (teamwork) wins championships.
名言
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1(奥巴马)的例子-用于证明(Diligence)
One can hardly achieve the ultimate success unless he or she keeps persistent. Take Mr. Obama, the 44th president of the US, for example. When he was young, he was poor at giving the public speech: sometimes he would be so nervous that he would even stammer in front of the audience. However, he thought that in order to become successful, a great eloquence is indispensable. So, for the next consecutive 5 years, not only did he buy a lot of cassettes and repeat after the presidents’ speeches sentence by sentence, but also he practiced speaking in front of the mirror, adjusting his own eye contact and body language little by little. Finally he became proficient in doing the public speech, which laid a solid foundation for his future career development. Therefore, without his perseverance, he could hardly be as successful as he is now.
2(乔布斯)的例子-用于证明(Passion/Devotion)
One can hardly achieve the real success if he just chases after money. Take Steve Jobs for example. When he returned Apple Inc. ten years after he was fired by the company, he just got paid for 1 dollar a year. If he just cared about money, he would never have chosen to be back again. But the low income did not stop him from being enthusiastic about the job he would do in Apple. In a few years, not only did he engage himself in designing great products such as iPhone and iPod, but more importantly, he helped Apple, which was on the brink of bankruptcy, to be back to the summit again. What he achieved was a huge success of course, which could not have become possible without his real devotion to his beloved career, rather than the financial gaining.
3(Kobe)的例子-用于证明(Diligence)
Kobe says he knows well how LA is like in 4 a.m., because that’s when he gets up and takes the training every morning. Is it formidable? Of course—for almost all people, 4 a.m. is a time when we are still in sound sleep, and we have to try really hard before even opening our eyes. But for days, months, and years, Kobe never stopped his physical training and shoot-around, and that’s why we can see this great first-rate player in the basket field.

工作成功professional life

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hunt for a job/land a job/promotion
high salary
working efficiency(分三点:reduce time/error, concentrate)

工作准备 internship career center/advice mock interviews模拟面试

工作相关表达
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1. 找工作
Be competitive in the job market
Win/ gain/ obtain/ attain + competitive edges优势/competitiveness + in +方面
或 ~~~over +人
Hunt for/ search for/ locate/ pursue + job过程 land a job结果
2. 晋升
Get promotion/ advancement
Move up one’s career ladder
友谊类表达
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XXX serves as platform to expand/ broaden one's + social circle/ friend circle/ personal network
Encounter/ come across/ get acquaintance with + those from diverse/ a large variety of/ different backgrounds and with common/ shared interests or objectives
Build/ establish + a close/ strong/ intimate紧密 + bound/ relationship/ connection with sb

常错词

(1)benefit
(2)Lack
(3)托福常见不加 s 名词
Knowledge information equipment advice evidence feedback
(4)
The sun rises.
We must do everything to raise the per unit yield.
You have one idea, they have another, and problems arise.
arouse hostility/suspicion/resentment/anger etc
arouse interest/expectations etc
(5)outweigh对 outweight错
But the benefits far() the inconveniences.
Typically, however, the disadvantages of this approach will () the advantages, especially when XML is sent as the content.
(6)
economy
economics
economic
Economical
(7)介词
Under this background, the department was established in 1974.错
Under the circumstances against the background/ backdrop
Her voice was shaking despite of all her efforts to control it.错
Despite = in spite of 没有despite of

不规则变化名词

basis/ bases analysis/ analyses crisis/ crises
hypothesis/ hypotheses axis/ axes
fungus/ fungi stimulus/ stimuli
datum/ data bacterium/ bacteria medium/ media
spectrum/ spectra emporium/ emporia
phenomenon/ phenomena
His father was a staff in the Salt Affairs Bureau. (x)
The contest employs more than 24800 part-time staffs. (x)
According to archaeological researches, there are traces of domestication of horses from 6000 years ago. (x)
美式,不加es 不加 the
He researches the properties of new materials. (对)


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